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Językoznawstwo- gramatyka opisowa

Autor /naireUnixRink Dodano /01.03.2006

Word-formation processes
COINAGE:
-The invention of totally new terms
-Proper names or trade names for one company’s product become general terms for any version of that product.(eg. kleenex, Guy Fox->guy(any human being); -meaning of the words is broaden and broaden.
BORROWING:
-very common word –formation process;
-it’s social phenomenon;
-means, the taking over of words from other languages; -it takes place when a speaker of one culture come to contact with another one; -the borrowing will be taken from the most influential culture
Loan-words – words adapted from other languages
Loan-translation (calque) – it’s a direct translation of the elements of a word into the borrowing language.
There’s always change in phonological structure.
COMPOUNDING:
-joining of two separate words to produce a single form; -important for English word –formation process, it’s the most productive process;
-eg. wallpaper, textbook
-the category of the word is determined by the last element (adjective, verb, noun…)
-the first element receive primary stress
-‘English Literature Teacher ->compound because of the stress(teacher of the literature); ->English ‘Literature Teacher=a phrase but compound noun (a teacher who is English)
BLENDING:
-taking only the beginning of one word and joining it to the end of the other word; -clipped and then compounded word
-eg. smog (smoke +fog), motel, bit, brunch, telecast, Chunnel.
CLIPPING:
-clip=to cut; -making words shorter, reducing them;
-a word of more then one syllable is reduced to a shorter form; -esp in casual speech; -gas, bus, piano, bra
BACKFORMATION:
-a word of one type(usu a noun) is reduced to form another word of a different type(usu a verb); -worker->work, donation->donate…
-hypocorisms-a longer word is reduced to a single syllable, then –y or –ie is added to the end: movie, telly->television
Synchronic perspective on language-together; at the same point of time
Diachronic perspective on language-not together; in different points of time; showing changes, how the language evolve in time.
CONVERSION:
-a change in the function of a word(eg. when the noun comes to be used as a verb without any reduction)
-other names are: “category change” I “functional shift”;
-very productive in English, do not exist in Polish
-eg. cut,paper, butter, bottle, vecation, spy.
-some converted forms shift in meaning when they change the category.
ACRONYMS:
-extreme form of reduction; -are formed from the initial letters of a set of other words
-2 kind of them: “alphabetisisms”->CD, DNA-pronunciation consist of the set of letters; -second are pronounced as a single word-> NATO, NASA, UNESCO, PIN
-some acronyms lose their capitals to become everyday terms -> laser
DERIVATION:
-opposite of reduction; -very common process; -creating longer forms from very short, simple to more complex by adding affixes (prefixes+ suffixes) to the root
-prefixes-in the beginning of the word; -suffixes-at the end of the word; -infixes-affix that is incorporated inside another word -> unfuckingbelievable.

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